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Geography

Bulgaria is situated in Southeastern Europe in a crossroad between Europe, Asia and Africa. It borders the Black Sea to the east, Turkey and Greece to the south, Serbia and the F.Y.R.O.M. to the west and Romania to the north. The country occupies a total area of 110 910 sq km. The climate is temperate continental, tending to Mediterranean in the southern region, with 4 seasons - cold damp winters and hot dry summers, mild autumns and short rainy springs. This enables you to travel all-the-year round.

The relief of Bulgaria varies. The mountaineous areas predominate, occupying almost one quarter of the country's territory. The Balkan Range or Stara Planina cross the country from west to east dividing Bulgaria into 2 almost equal parts. The southern part is mostly occupied by the mountains Pirin, Rila (with Mussala, the highest peak of the Balkan Pensinsula - 2925 m) and Rhodopi which form a large massif.

To the north lies the biggest Bulgarian lowlands area, the Danubean plate. Small and fertile valleys are spread between the Balkan Range and its lower sub-mountains. The most famous of the them is the Rose Valley where the rose oil is produced.

Inspite Bulgaria is reach in waters, the only navegable river is the Danube. Other important rivers are Iskar, Maritza, Tundja, Kamchia and Yantra. The lakes are typical for the high-mountain areas in Rila and Pirin and for the Black Sea coast. Bulgaria was famous during the times of the Roman and Byzantine empires for its spas and nowadays there are more than 700 mineral springs all over the country.

The flora and fauna are characterized by a large number of species. The forests - one of the best preserved in Europe - occupy one third of the country. The deciduous forests in plane and plateau-like regions predominate over the coniferous in the high-mountain areas. Typical for the country are the riverside forests. The animal world in Bulgaria represents almost all European species, including more than 200 species of nesting birds. There are more than 90 game and forest preserves in Bulgaria.


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